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Carpets or rugs form an integral part of religious and cultural festivities, os well as in everyday life, such as prayer mats. J - Ij I ^ jl l Zj «.i j J Making Conversation 39 MAKING CONVERSATION Do you live here! Carpets have long been used as a form of currency, and weaving new carpets is a kind of savings account, which con be sold off in times of need. -i bulbul carpets feature birds and flowers, heriz and mehribcm carpets feature hunting scenes and tales gabbeh carpets usually contain sporting and hunting scenes, local monuments or mosques.
Acknowledgments 3 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Yavar Dehghani was born in Iran. As you can tell who or what the speaker is referring to by the form of the verb, the subject can usually be left out of a sentence. man be khane raftam be khane raftam (lit: I to home went-I) (lit: to home went-I) WORD ORDER The basic word order in Persian is Subject-Object- Verb, How- ever, this order isn’t fixed, especially in the spoken style where the verb can come before the object - Sub jeer- Verb-Object - as in English.
After complete mg a Bachelor degree in speech pathology and an MA In linguistics, he taught at universities in Tehran and Abriz while writing several books on speech disorders and related areas. As verbs indicate the subject of a sentence, even if you cant remember the word order, Persian speakers will understand you no matter where you put rhe verb in a sentence.
the prettier house khane ye zibatar (lit; house yc prettier) Superlatives Superlatives (best, hottest} are formed by adding -tarin to the end of an adjective. In this phrasebook, subject pronouns have been puc in square brackets to show that they arc optional. d khastand mikhaslam mikhast E mi khast mikhastim mikhostid mikha stand khaham kard khahi kard khahad kard khahim kqrd khahid kard khahand kard khaham khast khahi khast khahad khast khoh Em khast khahid khast khahand khast 1 you he/she/it we you (pi) they m id a ham midahi mid a had middhim midahid midahand dadam dadi dad dadinrt dadid dadond midodam midddi middd middd im midadid midadand i you be/she/it we tpl) khaham danest khahi danest khahad danest khahim danest khahid danest khahand danest middnom middni m Edanacf m idan Em m idan Ed midanand danestam midanestam ddnesti midanesti danest m Eddnest ddnesti in mrdonestim ddnestid middnestid dane stand middnestqnd 34 Mistakes to Watch for MISTAKES TO WATCH FOR - PERSIAN SPEAKERS * Pro n undati o n of so m e E n g i i sh word $ i s mo re d if f icu It for sp ea k- ers of Persian than others. salam khoda hafez bale/na bebakhshid lotfan motashakkeram kheyli mammin bashe eshka J nadare?
There are both informal and polite forms of the singular pronoun you’. The sound 'th', as in This', is often pronounced 'd\ as in 'dis', and 'w\ as in Voter', is often pro- nounced as a V as in Voter' ■ * In words beginning with two consonants, Persian speakers often add a vowel at the start; 'estudent' instead of 'student' S t . khahesh mikonam J_U I Jj G I ft i Tl “ % T- *1 iai U. 3^3 Persian speakers indicate yes’ by nodding their head forward and down.
The third person singular (he, she, It) has two forms — u is used to refer to animate nouns (such as people and animals)., while in refers to inanimate objects (things).. These verbs can be used with nouns, adjectives or adverbs* Tm thirsty, teshne hastam (lit: thirsty am-I) You were thirsty, teshne buddi (lit: thirsty we re-you) In colloquial speech, hast can be omitted (except with 'he* she, if), but the personal suffix still remains, I’m thirsty. ) 30 Negatives NEGATIVES To form the negative, the prefixna- is placed before a verb. u be tehran raft (lit: he to Tehran went -he) He didn't go to Jehran. The sounds kh, gh, ' [glottal stop), d and h ore often mispronounced; 'kune' instead of 'khune' 'mofad' instead of Tna Tad' 'gand' instead of 'ghand' 'momm' instead of 'mohemm ' 'salam' instead of 'salam' * English speakers often forget to add a personal suffix to a verb, or use the wrong one, as in: 'man amad' instead of 'man amadam' (lit: \ come) [lit: I corned] * English speakers often place stress on the first syllable of a Persian word instead of the last, for example: sojbhu-ne' instead of sob-hu-n V MEETING PEOPLE I If an Iranian family invites you to their house, they'll most likely take you to the guestroom - the best place in the room is reserved for the guest. Alternatively, the eyebrows may be raised, (Body language is used in informal situations, and the polite way to indicate *yes’ and no' is wkhba Je , ‘yes’, oina , W.) HIP TO BE SQUARE Because the subject of a sentence is indicated in the verb, subject pronouns are optional In this pbrasebook, subject pronouns appear in square brackets. mo'arefi konain I'm pleased to meet you, &z ashnayitun khoshbakhtam I'm a friend of (Behzad).